If you have been following this blog series, you know that the first blog discussed the cyberattack kill chain and how hackers target individuals and systems and the second blog covered common cyberattacks and how they are perpetrated and identified. In this final post, I am going to discuss what users can do to harden their systems against attack.
Typically, criminals are lazy and take the path of least resistance. Just like locking your doors and having an alarm system will deter the majority of home burglars, there are preventative steps a computer user can take to cause a criminal to move on to someone else who is easier to compromise. The major caveat to this is if you happen to be specifically targeted by the attacker, who may not be easily deterred by basic preventative measures.
Cybersecurity is a fine balance between convenience and security; users and businesses must make an informed risk-based decision when determining the level of security that should be applied to systems and applications. Too much convenience and your systems are wide open to attacks. Too much security and work is inhibited
In no particular order, here are my suggestions and opinions on how to keep yourself cybersafe:
I have an entire blog post dedicated to Multifactor Authentication (MFA). If you want the details, please read it – but to summarize here, use MFA for everything that you possible can. Can it be a hassle to always have your phone with you? Yes. Does it make it nearly impossible for someone to access your online information without your phone? Yes. Use MFA like Google Authenticator or text messaging for banks, Dropbox, iCloud, Google, etc. If you are wondering what sites and services offer MFA, look at this website.
Equally as important as having good cybersecurity, you must protect your devices. Once an attacker has physical access to your phone, tablet, computer, etc. it is game over. Use strong passwords, use screen savers that require a password once they come on, don’t share your password with others, and don’t leave your devices unattended.
Never, ever, connect your phone or device to charging stations in public places or to a rental vehicle via USB cables. Studies have shown that in some cases, data is collected within rental car computers and in charging stations and malware can be implanted on the connected device. If you must charge, use power plugs or cigarette lighter chargers and never directly connect a USB cable to a hub. The only exception is if you buy a USB cable that has had the data wire removed or use a data blocking device in line like this one.
I have already mentioned in my second blog post what the dangers are of reusing the same password for everything, but it is impossible to remember multiple passwords. I have a few recommendations when it comes to passwords and it involves another risk-based decision. For instance, if you have enabled MFA on your accounts, then you have greatly reduced the risk of unauthorized access, so the complexity of your passwords is not as important as it would be if you didn’t have MFA (the convenience – security balance). Even reusing passwords on accounts with MFA is more tolerable because the one time password (OTP) used with your app or text message provides the extra security.
For me, I use a password manager to maintain all of my passwords. I don’t like having my browser save my passwords because if my system or browser is compromised, those passwords will most likely get stolen. I also don’t trust cloud password managers because if the cloud provider is compromised, my passwords may also be compromised (this has happened).
I recommend standalone databases that are installed on your system and encrypted themselves. I like KeePass and a lot of security research has been done on this program. It uses excellent encryption and you can place the database in a shared location if you want (such as a home network attached storage (NAS) device) and it is usable on mobile devices. It’s not stored in the cloud and allows you to maintain usernames, URLs, passwords, and other secure notes. It also has a password generator, which allows you to create very complex passwords immediately.
I actually do not know most passwords to websites, I use KeePass to generate hugely complex passwords for sites that don’t utilize MFA and just store them within KeePass. If I need to access the site I copy/paste the complex password into the browser and never see it.
Make sure you are using PINs, fingerprints, or complex passwords to access your mobile devices. There are pros and cons to using different methods, but make sure you are at least using something and preferably more than just a four-digit PIN.
Patch, Patch, Patch
Make sure that your Operating System (OS) (i.e., Windows, Mac OS X, iOS, Android, Linux) is setup to automatically download and install updates. Frequent patching is one of the best ways to prevent cyberattacks that leverage known vulnerabilities. In addition to patching the OS, make sure to patch all other third party software installed on your devices. This is relatively simple with iPhones for example because it will automatically update the OS as well as apps installed on the device.
This becomes more complex with computers because although the OS may update, other software like Java, Adobe, Office, Chrome, Firefox, etc. usually don’t. Mac is generally better at third party app management than Windows, but Windows is getting there with Windows 10. There are apps available to help keep your Windows third party software updated, look at https://ninite.com/ for example.
Install and Maintain Security Software
Just as malware has come a long way, so has security software. Today’s (good) security software really does a lot more than the old antivirus software (hence calling it security software instead of just antivirus). Because of the sharing of common information and malware, the market for specialized security software is much different than it used to be and in fact many great products are completely free. Windows Defender for example is actually a decent security software tool and built in to Windows. The nice thing about Defender is that it updates as Windows updates and you don’t have to worry about an incompatibility with your security software anytime you upgrade your OS (used to be a common issue).
Although there are many myths around Macs being more secure than Windows computers, they face many of the same vulnerabilities as PCs. The difference really is that because Windows systems has the greatest market share and are more common in businesses, most malware is written and directed at PCs. There is plenty of Mac malware though and running a Mac without security software is no longer an option.
There is a mix of commercial and open source security software tools available and they range in price from free to an annual subscription of around $50 to $60. Ideally, look for a software that provides anti-malware, firewall, intrusion prevention, web protection, and crypto-attack detection. Here are a few examples of security software tools I would consider (these are my own personal opinions and I’m not endorsing any particular vendor, but have personal knowledge of the tools below):
- Sophos (home version is free, or they have a paid version with advanced features) https://home.sophos.com
- Microsoft Windows Defender (free with Windows) https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/comprehensive-security
- Norton by Symantec (paid product) https://us.norton.com/antivirus
- Trend Micro (paid product) https://www.trendmicro.com/en_us/forHome.html
If you really want to compare different security software vendors, check out this site.